Ultrasonic sensors work by sending out a sound wave at a frequency above the range of human hearing. The transducer of the sensor acts as a microphone to receive and send the ultrasonic sound. Our ultrasonic sensors, like many others, use a single transducer to send a pulse and to receive the echo. The sensor determines the distance to a target by measuring time lapses between the sending and receiving of the ultrasonic pulse.
Distance = Speed × Time
The working principle of this module is simple. It sends an ultrasonic pulse out at 40 kHz which travels through the air and if there is an obstacle or object, it will bounce back to the sensor. By calculating the travel time and the speed of sound, the distance can be calculated.