Functional Components


A white light produce by mixing 3 different colors like RGB- Red, Green, and Blue is an RGB LED. The main purpose of this RGB model is for sensing, representation, and displaying images in the electronic system.

This LED consist of 3 terminals (RGB in color) which are present internally and a long lead which is present is either a cathode or an anode.

The main purpose of the RGB color model is for the sensing, representation, and display of images in electronic systems, such as televisions and computers.


A potentiometer is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding or rotating contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider. If only two terminals are used, one end and the wiper, it acts as a variable resistor.

Potentiometers are commonly used to control electrical devices such as volume controls on audio equipment.


A switch is an electrical component that can disconnect or connect the conducting path in an electrical circuit, interrupting the electric current or diverting it from one conductor to another.

Switches are essentially binary devices: they are either completely on (“closed”) or completely off (“open”). There are many different types of switches, and we will explore some of these types in this chapter in further activities.

When connecting components, make sure that connections are made at the opposite ends of the switch. A connection can be made diagonally as shown in the figure for the proper working of the circuit.


A diode is a semiconductor device that essentially acts as a one-way switch for current. It allows current to flow easily in one direction, but severely restricts current from flowing in the opposite direction.

Diodes are also known as rectifiers because they change alternating current (ac) into pulsating direct current (dc). Diodes have polarity, determined by an anode (positive lead) and cathode (negative lead). When a diode allows current flow, it is forward-biased. When a diode is reverse-biased, it acts as an insulator and does not permit current to flow.