The science behind the waveform generation is better explained by Faraday’s Law of electromagnetic Induction which states that; the voltage produced by stationary coils as a result of the motion of a rotating magnet is proportional to the rate at which the magnetic flux is changing perpendicular to the coils.
some useful waveform used in representing AC asides the sinusoidal waveform pattern, These wave forms include;
In this waveform, either the negative or positive swing of the waveform, the duration for each the swings are always equal and they are thus said to be symmetrical. Square waves unlike sine waves, have vertical up and downs with flat top at the peak amplitude level instead of the progressively rising waveform with sharp peaks that characterizes the sine wave. They are basically referred to as square waves because of their flat tops.
Triangular waves have a sharper peak edge compared to the sine wave. They have a slow rising and decay time. The triangular waves are equally periodic, and have equal rise and fall time. A sample of the triangular wave is shown in the image below.
The peak of the sawtooth wave form looks like that of a sawtooth, hence the name. Sawtooth waveform are basically of two types; the positive ramp characterized by high steep decay and slow rising time, and the negative ramp wave form characterized by slow steep decay and fast rising time. Images to differentiate between the two wave forms are shown below.